You need to keep in mind that the manufacture of any joinery products (whether it’s a shelf for books, a stool or a window frame) start by marking the application with the help of marking tools on the prepared surface of the workpiece lines (scratches) and dots indicating the overall dimensions of the parts, as well as the limits or boundaries of their treatment. When marking seek to exclude inadmissible faults in the workpiece.

Marking is also necessary to ensure a tight and durable connection between the individual parts. Basic layout tools: various ruler, folding meter, Vernier caliper, protractor, triangles, erunok, Malka, gauging, uwalaka and Scriber, an awl and a pencil. Markup tools typically have a scale with tick marks. In some cases, use devices that do not have a scale, they include templates. The markup for the template is only a copy of the outline of the template on the workpiece. The use of templates is useful when cutting the material on a curved workpiece. After completing the layout, proceed to the processing of wood. Processing by means of which change the sizes, the form and appearance of wood without change of its chemical composition, is called mechanical. The latter can be made by hand, machines or machines. The main methods of manual processing of wood, available for execution at home, based on splitting and cutting Splitting — separation of wood layers along the fiber wedge-shaped tool. Such a tool does not cut the wood fibers, but only splits them. The splitting used in the procurement of assortments of stab — parquet and cooperage staves, axe handles and knobs, crovelli tiles (chips), plaster, shingles, and firewood. In many cases, splitting is more effective than sawing, because it allows simple methods to make the most complete use of defective and wood. Tools for cracking — axes, wedges -call derevoobrabatyvajushhee.

Cutting — processing, which destroyed the connection between the wood particles on a strictly specified direction. Cutting is carried out by the following techniques: chopping and tesanj, sawing, planing, sanding, zinobiani, chiselling, drilling, cutting with a knife and sanding. The purpose of such processing is to obtain the product of the desired shape and size, with the required surface roughness Cutting and cutting — the main method of carpentry related to the primary processing of wood raw materials, mainly in the form of round timber. Tools for pererubanija and hewn: the axe and the chisel.Sawing-the process of closed cutting wood saws to divide it into parts. Gang saw is a tool at the working edge of which are teeth (incisors). The slit (aperture) formed in the wood when sawing is called a kerf.

The methods of treatment of wood

Planing — cutting wood with knives, in which the cutting path is a straight line,coinciding with the direction of the working movement. For planing of rectilinear, curvilinear, flat and profile there are various plane tools (planes).

Scraping-cutting in order to obtain a high purity of the surface by fine cleaning of hard wood; perform cutter, set so that the cutting process itself is close to scraping. The tool-a cycle which can be in the form of a simple metal plate with the ground edge, often such plate fix in a wooden block.

Zinobiani — cutting, performed with the purpose of alignment of large planes of fascia, as well as for Stripping and the creation of a roughness of a surface under bonding. Tool for zinobiani (zinwell) has the form of a plane with a cool knife mounted on the front side of which is sliced parallel paths, forming on the blade small teeth. When planing the teeth on the treated surface and make numerous scratches (shallow grooves).

Dolblenie-cutting of wood for receiving various dredging, nests and eyelets necessary for performance of joiner’s connections. The cutting tools are chisels, sometimes chisels, and auxiliary tools for striking — hammers.

Drilling — cutting wood rotating tool while feeding it in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation. The purpose of drilling-the formation of holes in the wood. Cutting tool for drilling are the drill, rotated by a hand drill, a drill or reamer, and drill.

Cutting-a special case of cutting, performed with a knife or chisels, as well as special tools for wood carving.

Grinding-cutting, in which the cutters are abrasive grains glued to paper or fabric. Such paper or fabric called sanded. Sharp edges and corners of abrasive grains at the movement of a skin on the processed surface cut off thin and narrow shavings; the less grain, the shavings are thinner and the surface is smoother.


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