Gymnastics originated in Ancient Greece. In translation this word means «to train, train». While the athletes were engaged in naked, so the second version of the origin of the word «Nude». Its in their writings described Aristotle, Homer, Plato. They talked about the beneficial effects of gymnastics on the body and education of children and boys.

Gymnastics was one of the components of the Olympic competitions for 1168 years. But in the year 393 they banned it, believing that it has a pagan basis and bad for the moral education of the youth. In the Middle Ages, gymnastics was no longer the same as in Ancient Greece, but in the preparation of knights for military Affairs used gymnastic elements. Their training included acrobatic elements, stretching and resourcefulness to stand firm in an unequal battle. Attempts to revive gymnastics as a sport took place in the late middle Ages. Jerome Mercuralis wrote the article «the art of gymnastics», physical education emphasis Pestalozzi, Jan Amos Kamensky. In this period originated the new gymnastics complex polirovka, which was performed on the table, a horse, a pole. But as such, it has not received development. In high society, gymnastics was not perceived and considered an occupation for commoners. The revival of gymnastics With the development of balance in society of XVIII – XIX centuries in the schools of Germany have developed a sports theme, in which gymnastics were a separate subject. Famous teacher of F. L. Jahn created gymnastics system called «turnen». It included exercises on bars, horse, horizontal bar and rings. Near Berlin in 1811 opened a gymnastics school with shells, and 5 years later published a book «German gymnastics» with guidelines and examples of exercises. In parallel with the Berlin school other gymnastic national systems were created – Czech, Swedish, French. For a long time in 1817 the first gymnastic competitions were held in Paris. In Sweden, the gymnastic system was based on free exercises. Attempts to revive the Olympic games culminated in their revival in 1896. Gymnastics was included in the games as a separate sport and today it is the most spectacular part of the Olympic games. Scientists also distinguish health-improving types of gymnastics:

Aerobics. This is rhythmic gymnastics, consisting of Jogging, hopping movements, sit-UPS and tilts up-tempo music.

Yoga. Includes breathing exercises, different poses, psychoregulation.

Health walking. Morning gymnastics is a training of the body after sleep. Women’s gymnastics to facilitate childbirth and motherhood. Athletic gymnastics. Aimed at muscle mass growth, strength and endurance. Therapeutic exercise for overcoming of consequences of diseases orthopaedic nature.

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07.02.2019
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